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Table 3 Confusion matrix of different water indexes. OT means Optimum Threshold

From: Near infrared band of Landsat 8 as water index: a case study around Cordova and Lapu-Lapu City, Cebu, Philippines

McFeeters [13] OT = − 0.2592 Feyisa et al. [16] - AWEInsh OT = − 0.2982
Classification Water Non-Water Total Classification Water Non-Water Total
Water 19,498 1074 20,572 Water 23,244 1592 24,836
Non-Water 4924 30,729 35,653 Non-Water 1178 30,211 31,389
Total 24,422 31,803 56,225 Total 24,422 31,803 56,225
PA [%] 79.8 96.6   PA [%] 95.2 95.0  
UA [%] 94.8 86.2   UA [%] 93.6 96.3  
OA [%]    89.3 OA [%]    95.1
Kappa hat    0.779 Kappa hat    0.900
Rogers and Kearney [14] OT = −0.159 Feyisa et al. [16] - AWEIsh OT = −0.1905
Classification Water Non-Water Total Classification Water Non-Water Total
Water 22,132 1655 23,787 Water 24,019 541 24,560
Non-Water 2290 30,148 32,438 Non-Water 403 31,262 31,665
Total 24,422 31,803 56,225 Total 24,422 31,803 56,225
PA [%] 90.6 94.8   PA [%] 98.4 98.3  
UA [%] 93.0 92.9   UA [%] 97.8 98.7  
OA [%]    93.0 OA [%]    98.3
Kappa hat    0.857 Kappa hat    0.966
Xu [15] OT = −0.2105 NIR band OT = 0.128
Classification Water Non-Water Total Classification Water Non-Water Total
Water 22,206 1134 23,340 Water 24,163 133 24,296
Non-Water 2216 30,669 32,885 Non-Water 259 31,670 31,929
Total 24,422 31,803 56,225 Total 24,422 31,803 56,225
PA [%] 90.9 96.4   PA [%] 98.9 99.6  
UA [%] 95.1 93.3   UA [%] 99.5 99.2  
OA [%]    94.04 OA [%]    99.3
Kappa hat    0.878 Kappa hat    0.986