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Table 4 Concentrations of heavy metals in leave, culm, and roots of P. australis within sites of the study area compared with normal and critical ranges in plants [31] and Bioaccumulation Factor of the plant (BAF)

From: Toxicity assessment of heavy metals and organochlorine pesticides in freshwater and marine environments, Rosetta area, Egypt using multiple approaches

Site Plant parts Metal (μg g−1)
Ni Co Cr
Site_1
(near Sea-Mahmodia)
Leave 104 61 3.6
Culm 174 47 0.9
Root 88 26 0.4
Mean (Plant) 122 45 1.6
Mean (Sediment) 30 56 1.7
BAF 4.1 0.8 1.0
Site_2
(Desouk-Kafr Elsheikh boundary)
Leave 42 1.3 3.3
Culm 67 154 8.4
Root 86 323 17
Mean (Plant) 65 159 9.4
Mean (Sediment) 40 34 2.2
BAF 1.6 4.7 4.3
Site_3
(Kafr Elsheikh boundary-Kafr Elzayat)
Leave 107 65 6.9
Culm 83 31.44 0.2
Root Nd nd Nd
Mean (Plant) 95 48 3.6
Mean (Sediment) 31 23 1.4
BAF 3.1 2.2 2.6
Normal Range in Plants (ppm) 0.1–5 0.02–1
Critical Range in Plants (ppm) 10–100 15–50