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Table 3 Reduction ratios (%) of potential pathogens and indicator bacteria in digestate samples

From: Improved biofertilizer properties of digestate from codigestion of brewer’s spent grain and palm oil mill effluent by manure supplementation

Bacterial groupsReactors
ABCD (control)
Total coliforms44.4 ± 0.10b46.2 ± 1.00c49.3 ± 1.00d40.0 ± 1.00a
Faecal coliforms47.2 ± 1.00b59.2 ± 1.00c60.0 ± 1.00c29.3 ± 1.00a
Salmonella36.0 ± 1.00a41.2 ± 0.81b49.2 ± 1.12c40.0 ± 0.40b
Staphylococcus36.4 ± 0.50a50.0 ± 1.00b50.0 ± 5.00b46.0 ± 4.00b
Vibrio99.6 ± 0.58a99.3 ± 1.15a99.3 ± 1.15a99.6 ± 0.58a
  1. Similar superscript letter means not significantly different in mean (p > 0.05), while different superscript letters mean significantly different (p < 0.05); A—D indicate bioreactors with different waste composition