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Table 2 Assumptions used in MFA and LCA

From: Material flow analysis and life cycle assessment of solid waste management in urban green areas, Thailand

Assumption Ref.
Goal and scope   - Environmental impacts from upstream life cycle stages before the SW collection were excluded
- Environmental impacts of the infrastructures, capital goods, and wastewater treatment from the treatment plants were also excluded
- The collection and the source separation assumed to have no material and energy consumption
[3, 8, 23]
LCI MFA Considered transfer coefficients are recycling process (25.5%-plastic,11%-paper, 0%-glass, 16.5%-aluminum), 35%-composting process, and 17%-incineration process [24, 27, 28]
   - Emissions of biogenic CO2 were assumed to be neutral [27, 29]
  Landfilling with gas recovery - The efficiency of the landfilling system with gas recovery is 50% [27, 29]
  Recycling system - Secondary products produced from the recycling process replace the production of alternative products. The potential avoidance of primary products (90%-plastic, 95%-glass, 90%-paper, 75%-aluminum) [30, 31]
  Composting process - Compost produced from the composting process replaces the chemical fertilizers in S4. The potential avoidance of chemical fertilizer usage is 7.1 kg N, 4.1 kg P2O5, 5.4 kg K2O t− 1 of compost. [30, 31]
  Incineration process - The electricity recovering efficiency at the incineration plant for S2 and S3 is 8% and for S4 20%
- Electricity produced from incineration displaces an equivalent amount of electricity generated
  Transportation - Transport distances
50 km (to landfill)
10 km (to composting plant)
100 km (to incineration plant)
50 km (to recyclable waste collection plant)
- the process “Transport, municipal waste collection, 21 t lorry and freight, lorry” for waste transportation to the landfill site, composting plant, and incineration plant
- the process “Transport, freight, lorry, unspecified” was selected for the transportation of recyclable waste to the treatment facility