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Table 5 Comparison of reactor configuration, operating conditions, influent compositions and denitrification efficiency between the USB reactor and other studies

From: Effect of carbon-to-nitrogen ratio on high-rate nitrate removal in an upflow sludge blanket reactor for polluted raw water pre-treatment application

Reactor configuration HRT (h) Carbon source Influent NO3-N (mg L− 1) Influent C/N (g C g− 1 N) NO3-N loading rate (mg L− 1 d− 1) NO3-N removal efficiency (%) Reference
USB 3 Sodium acetate 40 2–3 320 99 ± 1 This study
Batch denitrification experiment 12 Acetic acid 50 1.9 100 97–99 [30]
Batch denitrification experiment 24 Sodium acetate 5 3–5 5 >  99 [5]
Batch biofilm reactor 24 Sodium acetate with rice straw/rice husk 4 1.1 4 82 [31]
Upflow packed bed column 9 Acetic acid 100 1.5 267 >  99 [16]
USB 3 Raw sewage 32.9 ± 11.0 1.4 360 ± 90 35 [11]