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Table 3 Drivers and barriers to the CE concept implementation for the Thai cassava starch production process (CSPP)

From: Implementing circular economy concept by converting cassava pulp and wastewater to biogas for sustainable production in starch industry

  Drivers Barriers
Technology 1. A mature biogas conversion technology with full commercial deployment in Thailand 1. Limitations of pretreatment technology
Solution:
Develop low investment and operating cost, high efficiency pretreatment technology for lignocellulosic materials
2. Availability of cassava pulp as waste
Solution:
Develop biogas conversion technology for flexible substrates
3. Lack of a successful model of biogas production from cassava pulp
Solution:
Disseminate the successful models of biogas production from cassava pulp to the industry
Economic 1. Production cost reduction from replacing electricity and fuel oil
2. Revenue earned from selling biogas to grid
1. High investment cost of biogas system
Solution:
Provide government tax relief, benefits and financial support
2. Lack of incentive
Solution:
Create new incentives for high efficiency biogas conversion technology
Regulatory 1. Adoption of Paris Agreement in Thailand
2. Waste and wastewater treatment laws
1. Lack of a conducive legal system
Solution:
Establish one stop service organization for biogas investment
2. Limitation of government support
Solution:
Improve the Alternative Energy Development Plan to support biogas production from cassava pulp
Social responsibility 1. Expansion of communities close to industry 1. Lack of environmental concern from the investors
Solution:
Strictly enforce environmental laws and establish an organization to disseminate knowledge and make policy recommendations for biogas production and educate the public.